Table 1. Summarized effects of RhodiolaEchinacea, Ginseng, and Camellia, or its extracts, supplemented in pregnancy and/or lactation on mothers and offspring health.

Herb or ExtractKey SubstancesPharmacological Action
Rhodiolaphenylethanoid salidroside and tyrosol, phenolic acids (i.e., chlorogenic, ferulic, ellagic and p-coumaric), and flavonoids (i.e., fisetin, naringenin, kaempferol, epicatechin, luteolin, quercetin, epigallocatechin and (+)-catechin)reduces the percentage of cells with a respiratory burst in granulocytes (supplementation with RKW) [28]
increases in the percentage of granulocytes and monocytes in the blood with the respiratory burst (supplementation with RKW-A) [28]
contributes to changes in spleen morphology and structure [29]
increases the concentration of VEGF and bFGF [30]
reduces the number of CD4 + and CD19 + cells and the total number of NK cells [31]
increases hemoglobin concentration (about 0.6 mg/dL) [32]
decreases in the mean percentage of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, and an increase in the mean percentage of granulocytes [32]
decreases in the percentage of CD3+ cells and CD4+ [32]
increases the concentration of IL-10 in the serum [33] stimulate the phagocytosis process [32]
significant difference in tissue localization and the number of CD8+ cells [34]
contributes to a higher number of CD8+ cells in the central part of the spleen [34]
influence cell proliferation in response to mitogen supplementation (LPS, PHA and ConA) [29]
decreases the number of apoptotic cells [35]
decreases the concentration of VEGF in the sera [30]
Echinaceaalkamides, ketoalkenes, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and caftaric aciddoes not affect hematological and reproductive parameters [36]
no influences on the enzyme results [37]
decreases the level of crude protein in colostrum [37]
decreases the level of antibodies in the plasma [37]
decreases the number of spleen lymphocytes and nucleated erythroid cells [38]
contributes to more frequent miscarriages in the early stages of pregnancy [38]
decreases the number of embryos in litter and significantly diminished VEGF and bFGF content of embryos tissue [39]
increases phagocytic activity in blood [40]
increases bacterial diversity [40]
non-teratogenic, does not increase the risk of malformations [41,42,43]
Ginsengpolysaccharides, flavonoids, fatty acids, peptides, and saponins (mainly ginsenosides)increases the total IgG concentration in milk and serum of sows, which was associated with elevated levels of cytokines: IL-2, IL-6, TNF- α, and IFN-γ [44]
stimulates the effect of isolated lymphocytes after pokeweed mitogen stimulation [45]
stimulates the innate immunity in cows with Staphylococcus aureusinfection [46]
increases phagocytosis, oxidative burst activity of blood neutrophils and number of monocytes [46]
increases IL-2 and TNF-α concentration in the piglets’ serum [44]
reduces the incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring [47]
alleviates the toxic effects of phthalates and bisphenol A [48]
reverses the negative effect of dexamethasone on the synthesis of testosterone in Leydig cells [49]
teratogenic effect [50]
Camelliaepigallocatechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallateincreases the ratio of IL-10/TNF-α and IL-1β in mesenteric adipose tissue and causes a decrease in catalase in the liver [51]
inhibits the penetration of macrophages and increases the expression of AMPK (during lactation) [52]
contributes to alterations in urinary calcium, creatinine, and urea during the prenatal period, nephrotoxicity [53]
increases levels of proinflammatory cytokines and decreases anti-inflammatory cytokines levels in serum [53]
decreases of hemoglobin concentration and loss of the biconcave structure of erythrocytes [54]
increases of WBC level in the mother’s blood and induced significant changes in the histology of liver and serum enzymes [54]
decreases the level of folic acid [55]
increases the efficacy of oral nifedipine treatment in severe pregnancy-induced preeclampsia [56]
may be associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia [57]
increases the risk of premature birth [58]
risk factor for low birth weight of offspring [59]
protect against dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and fat accumulation [60]
pro-inflammatory effect on the adipose tissue (not on a high-fat diet) [60]
decreases the retroperitoneal adipose tissue relative weight and SOD activity but increases adiponectin, LPS, IL-10 and IL-6 content and IL-10/TNF-α ratio in retroperitoneal, IL-10 and TNF-α content in gonadal, and IL-6 content in mesenteric adipose tissues [51]
improves the results of treatment of maternal gestational diabetes [61]
reduces neonatal complications [61]
can decreases the number of malformations in fetuses after exposure to cyclophosphamide, but too high dose increases the toxicity of cyclophosphamide [62]

Published by varjakBaby

Clinging, reaching out. Crying wolf when it's reasonable--all the fucking time. No one listens; you may free your ladder from the basement as due to rescue the light on the roof of the night sky. Favorite cheeses, in no particular order: Gouda, muenster, provolone, Havarti, Monterey Jack.

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